Liability-Driven Investing (LDI)

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Written By
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Written By
Dan Buckley
Dan Buckley is an US-based trader, consultant, and part-time writer with a background in macroeconomics and mathematical finance. He trades and writes about a variety of asset classes, including equities, fixed income, commodities, currencies, and interest rates. As a writer, his goal is to explain trading and finance concepts in levels of detail that could appeal to a range of audiences, from novice traders to those with more experienced backgrounds.

Liability-Driven Investing (LDI) is a popular investment strategy for managing current and future liabilities.

Employed by both individuals and institutions, LDI focuses on ensuring that the investor has sufficient funds to meet future financial obligations.

This holistic approach to investment balances both sides of the balance sheet, creating a more secure financial outlook for those who adopt it.

In this article, we’ll look at the key principles of LDI, compare it to benchmark-driven strategies, and discuss its applications in various contexts.


Key Takeaways – Liability-Driven Investing (LDI)

  • LDI focuses on matching the liabilities of an institution or individual, such as pension funds or insurance companies, with suitable assets to mitigate the risk of falling short on meeting future obligations.
  • The primary objective of LDI is to protect against interest rate and inflation risks, as well as other risks that could impact the value of the liabilities. This is achieved by investing in assets that closely mimic the cash flows and duration of the liabilities.
  • LDI strategies require careful consideration of various factors, including the duration of liabilities, interest rate forecasts, asset allocation, and risk management techniques.
  • The aim is to minimize the funding gap and ensure the assets are sufficient to cover the liabilities, providing greater certainty and stability in meeting future financial obligations.


Understanding Liability-Driven Investing (LDI)

The Concept of LDI

At its core, LDI is an investment strategy that prioritizes the cash flows needed to fund future liabilities, while working to minimize the adverse influences of interest rate and inflation risks.

By concentrating on these obligations, investors can better plan for their financial future and minimize the risks associated with unexpected expenses or insufficient funds.

LDI vs. Benchmark-Driven Strategies

LDI differs significantly from benchmark-driven strategies, which aim to outperform external indices like the S&P 500.

While benchmark-driven strategies focus on beating the returns of an index (popular among entities like mutual funds), LDI is concerned with ensuring that an investor has adequate funds to meet their future liabilities.


Benefits of Liability-Driven Investing


LDI is particularly well-suited for situations where future liabilities can be predicted with a reasonable degree of accuracy.

By concentrating on these known expenses, investors can create a more stable financial outlook.

Risk Management

LDI inherently focuses on managing risk, as it is designed to ensure that investors have sufficient funds to meet their future obligations.


Applications of Liability-Driven Investing

Individual Investors

For individual investors, LDI is often employed in the context of retirement planning.

By focusing on the cash flows needed to fund living expenses from the date of retirement until the date of death, investors can create a more secure and predictable financial future.

For example, if an individual needs $10,000 per month in retirement and believes they can safely withdraw 4% of their portfolio per year, they can calculate their current nominal savings needs to be:


Savings needs = $10,000/mo * 12 months per year / 4% withdrawal rate per year = $3 million


Institutional Investors

Institutional investors, such as pension funds, can also benefit from LDI strategies.

By concentrating on the cash flows needed to make future payouts to pensioners over their expected lifetimes, institutions can better manage their financial obligations and reduce the risks associated with underfunded pension plans.

It is essentially a form of cash flow matching.


LDI in the Context of the UK Pension System Imbroglio of 2022

In 2022, a sharp increase in inflation and a change in fiscal policy in the UK (that would have added to the deficit) caused a sharp rise in interest rates. 

This caused long-dated bonds, which are often used by pension funds in their LDI strategies, to lose value rapidly. 

As a result, many pension funds found themselves in a precarious position, with their assets no longer sufficient to cover their liabilities.

The Bank of England intervened in the UK long-dated bond market to prevent the collapse of a number of pension funds.


FAQs – Liability-Driven Investing (LDI)

What is the primary objective of Liability-Driven Investing (LDI)?

The primary objective of LDI is to ensure that investors have adequate funds to meet their future liabilities by focusing on the cash flows required to fund these obligations, rather than solely on maximizing returns.

How does LDI differ from traditional benchmark-driven investment strategies?

While benchmark-driven strategies aim to outperform external indices like the S&P 500, LDI focuses on managing the assets required to meet future liabilities, prioritizing risk management and financial security over maximizing returns.

Is LDI suitable for all types of investors?

LDI is particularly well-suited for investors with predictable future liabilities, such as retirees or institutions with pension obligations.

However, other investors may also benefit from the risk management focus of LDI, depending on their individual financial goals and risk tolerance.

How does LDI help in managing risk?

LDI inherently focuses on risk management by ensuring that investors have adequate funds to meet their future liabilities.

This approach can help reduce the likelihood of financial shortfalls.

Can LDI be combined with other investment strategies?

Yes, LDI can be used in conjunction with other investment strategies to create a balanced and diversified portfolio.

Investors may allocate a portion of their assets to LDI to meet future liabilities while also employing benchmark-driven strategies for growth and diversification.

How do I determine the cash flows needed for my future liabilities?

To determine the cash flows needed for future liabilities, investors should consider factors such as inflation, life expectancy, and projected expenses.

Financial advisors can help investors estimate these cash flows and create an LDI strategy tailored to their unique financial situation.

Is LDI only applicable to retirement planning and pension funds?

While LDI is commonly used in retirement planning and pension fund management, its principles can be applied to other financial obligations as well, such as funding college education, long-term care, or even debt repayment.

The key is to have a clear understanding of the future liabilities and tailor the LDI strategy accordingly.

How can I implement an LDI strategy in my investment portfolio?

To implement an LDI strategy, investors should work with a financial advisor or use specialized investment products designed to match their specific liabilities.

These may include bonds, annuities, target-date funds, or other fixed-income investments that generate predictable cash flows.

Can LDI protect against market volatility?

While LDI cannot entirely eliminate market volatility, its focus on meeting future liabilities and risk management can help mitigate the impact of market fluctuations on an investor’s ability to meet their financial obligations.

How do I monitor and adjust my LDI strategy over time?

As with any investment strategy, it is essential to monitor and adjust an LDI strategy periodically.

Investors should reassess their future liabilities, risk tolerance, and investment performance to ensure their LDI strategy remains aligned with their financial goals.

Working with a financial advisor can be beneficial in making these adjustments and maintaining a well-balanced portfolio.

Why did the UK pension system nearly collapse in 2022?

That was driven by a rise in long-dated gilt yields, leading to mark-to-market losses among pensions.

Gilts are normally considered a safe investment, but have interest rate risk. The longer the duration of the bonds, the higher the interest rate risk.

Pension funds own around £1 trillion worth of these bonds, and the Bank of England had to intervene by buying up £72 billion in long-dated UK gilts to help prevent insolvency among a number of pension funds.



Liability-Driven Investing (LDI) offers a holistic approach to managing future liabilities, making it an attractive investment strategy for individuals and institutions alike.

By focusing on the cash flows needed to fund future obligations, LDI helps investors create a more secure and predictable financial future.

As a result, LDI has become an increasingly popular choice for those looking to minimize risk and better prepare for their financial responsibilities.