Global Macro

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Written By
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Written By
Dan Buckley
Dan Buckley is an US-based trader, consultant, and part-time writer with a background in macroeconomics and mathematical finance. He trades and writes about a variety of asset classes, including equities, fixed income, commodities, currencies, and interest rates. As a writer, his goal is to explain trading and finance concepts in levels of detail that could appeal to a range of audiences, from novice traders to those with more experienced backgrounds.

Global macro is an investment strategy that seeks to profit from changes in the global economy by taking positions in a wide range of financial instruments, including currencies, bonds, commodities, and equities.

This approach is based on the study of national economies, fiscal and monetary policies, financial and economic history, geopolitics, and international relations, and is typically implemented through a diversified portfolio of investments.

Global macro investors aim to identify and capitalize on macroeconomic trends and shifts in the global financial markets.

They may use a variety of tools and techniques, including fundamental analysis, technical analysis, and statistical modeling, to gather and interpret information about the global economy and financial markets.

One key aspect of global macro investing is the ability to anticipate and adapt to changes in the global economic landscape.

This may involve forecasting trends in economic growth, inflation, exchange rates, and other key macroeconomic indicators, and using this information to make informed investment decisions.

Global macro strategies can be highly risky and are not suitable for all investors.

They can be especially sensitive to changes in market conditions, and traders/investors may face significant losses if their predictions do not materialize as expected.

As such, global macro investing requires a high degree of expertise and careful risk management.


Key Takeaways – Global Macro

  • Global macro investing involves taking a top-down approach to investing, where the investor considers macroeconomic and geopolitical factors that may impact the global economy and financial markets.
  • Global macro investors often use a variety of investment tools and strategies, such as futures, options, and currencies, to take advantage of global economic trends and events.
  • It is important for global macro investors to have a broad understanding of the global economy and to be able to identify key drivers of economic growth and market movements.
  • Risk management is crucial in global macro investing, as the investor is exposed to a wide range of risks, including currency, interest rate, and political risks.
  • Global macro investing requires a long-term perspective, as the investor may need to hold positions for extended periods of time in order to take advantage of global economic trends.


Types of Global Macro

There are three main branches of global macro:

Discretionary Macro

Discretionary macro investment strategies involve making investment decisions based on a broad range of economic and financial factors, such as interest rates, inflation, currency exchange rates, and global economic conditions.

These strategies are often characterized by a flexible, opportunistic approach to investing that seeks to capitalize on short-term changes in the market.

One key aspect of discretionary macro investing is the ability to make timely and informed decisions based on a deep understanding of the global economic environment.

This requires a high level of expertise in economics, finance, and market analysis, as well as the ability to analyze and interpret large amounts of data.

In implementing a discretionary macro investment strategy, investors may use a variety of financial instruments, including stocks, bonds, currencies, and derivatives.

They may also employ a range of investment styles, such as long-term, short-term, or hedged positions, depending on their assessment of market conditions.

Overall, the goal of discretionary macro investing is to generate returns by accurately forecasting and exploiting shifts in the global economy and financial markets.

Systematic Macro (Macro Quant)

Systematic macro is a type of investment strategy that involves using quantitative models to identify and trade on macroeconomic trends.

This approach to investing is often referred to as “macro quant” because it involves using quantitative techniques to analyze and make decisions about macroeconomic trends.

These investment strategies are aided by AI and machine learning.

There are several different types of systematic macro investment strategies, including:


This strategy involves identifying trends in macroeconomic data and then following those trends by buying assets that are expected to benefit from the trend and selling assets that are expected to be negatively impacted.

Mean reversion

This strategy involves identifying deviations from long-term averages in macroeconomic data and then betting that the data will eventually return to its average or mean.


This strategy involves identifying specific events that are likely to have a significant impact on macroeconomic trends, such as central bank policy changes or elections, and then trading on the expected outcome of those events.


This strategy involves identifying specific factors that are believed to be correlated with macroeconomic trends, such as interest rates or commodity prices, and then constructing portfolios that are overweight or underweight in assets that are expected to be impacted by those factors.

Overall, systematic macro strategies seek to identify and trade on trends and patterns in macroeconomic data in an effort to generate returns for investors.

CTA/Managed Futures

CTA, or Commodity Trading Advisor, refers to a type of investment strategy that uses futures contracts, options on futures, and other derivatives to speculate on price movements in financial and commodity markets.

Managed futures is a type of investment that involves hiring a professional money manager, also known as a CTA, to make trades on behalf of the investor.

These strategies are often classified as global macro, as they aim to profit from broad economic trends and macroeconomic events, rather than focusing on individual securities or sectors.

It is often considered a momentum-based strategy.

CTA Leverage

One of the key features of CTA/managed futures strategies is the use of leverage.

By using leverage, CTAs can potentially amplify their returns, but they also increase their risk of loss.

Leverage can be obtained through the use of futures contracts, which allow traders to buy or sell a specific amount of a commodity or financial instrument at a predetermined price in the future.

Because futures contracts have a lower initial margin requirement compared to the full value of the underlying asset, traders can use leverage to control a larger position size with a smaller amount of capital.

CTA Markets

CTAs/managed futures strategies can be employed in a variety of different markets, including commodities such as agricultural products, energy, and metals; financial instruments such as currencies, interest rates, and equities; and alternative investments such as real estate and cryptocurrencies.

CTAs often use technical analysis, fundamental analysis, and/or quantitative models to identify trading opportunities and make decisions about when to enter and exit positions.

Risk management

In terms of risk management, CTAs/managed futures strategies typically have strict risk control measures in place to limit potential losses.

This may include the use of stop-loss orders, which automatically close out a position if it reaches a certain level of loss, and position sizing, which involves carefully controlling the size of individual trades based on the overall risk tolerance of the portfolio.

CTA Advantages

One potential advantage of CTA/managed futures strategies is their potential to provide diversification benefits to an investment portfolio.

Because these strategies are not tied to the performance of a specific market or sector, they may be less correlated with traditional asset classes such as stocks and bonds.

As a result, they may be able to reduce the overall volatility of a portfolio and provide a source of returns in different market environments.

CTA risks and considerations

However, CTA/managed futures strategies also come with certain risks and considerations.

These strategies may be more complex and less transparent than other types of investments, and they may involve higher fees due to the expertise and specialized knowledge required to manage them.

In addition, these strategies may not be suitable for all investors, as they involve a higher level of risk and may not always be profitable.

It is important for investors to carefully consider their risk tolerance and investment objectives before deciding whether CTA/managed futures strategies are appropriate for their portfolio.


What Is Global Macro Trading?


What Does Global Macro Research Entail?

Global macro research is a type of investment research that focuses on understanding broad economic trends and the ways in which they may impact financial markets.

This type of research typically involves analyzing macroeconomic data and indicators, such as GDP, inflation, employment, and trade balances, to identify trends and make forecasts about future market conditions.

Global macro researchers may also consider political, social, and technological factors that could impact global economic conditions, as well as the policies and actions of central banks and governments around the world.

Some of the key activities involved in global macro research include:

Gathering and analyzing data

This may involve collecting and reviewing economic data from various sources, such as government agencies, central banks, and international organizations.

Researchers may also use tools such as econometric financial models to analyze the data and make forecasts.

Global macro researchers aim to identify patterns and trends in economic data and understand their implications for financial markets.

This may involve analyzing long-term trends, as well as short-term fluctuations.

Forecasting market conditions

Based on their analysis of economic data and trends, global macro researchers may make predictions about future market conditions, such as changes in interest rates, currency exchange rates, and commodity prices.

Monitoring events and developments

Global macro researchers must stay up-to-date on global economic events and developments, such as central bank policy decisions, political elections, and trade negotiations.

They may also track the actions of key market participants, such as governments and large institutions.

Communicating findings

Global macro researchers may be responsible for presenting their findings to clients, investors, or other stakeholders in a clear and concise manner.

This may involve writing reports, giving presentations, or participating in meetings or conference calls.


Global Macro Trading vs. Global Macro Investing

Global macro trading and global macro investing are two different approaches to taking advantage of global economic trends and macroeconomic events.

Here are some key differences between the two:

Global Macro Trading

  • Involves actively buying and selling financial instruments, such as currencies, futures contracts, and options, in an effort to profit from short-term price movements
  • Can involve higher levels of risk, as traders are often using leverage to amplify their returns
  • May require frequent buying and selling, as traders seek to capitalize on short-term opportunities
  • Is typically focused on making profits in the near term, rather than focusing on long-term accumulation

Global Macro Investing

  • Involves buying and holding financial instruments, such as stocks, bonds, and real estate, with the goal of earning long-term returns
  • May involve a more conservative approach to risk, as investors are seeking to preserve capital over the long term
  • May involve less frequent buying and selling, as investors are not seeking to capitalize on short-term fluctuations
  • Is normally focused on building wealth over the long term, rather than seeking short-term profits

In general, global macro trading is a more short-term, actively managed approach to taking advantage of global economic trends, while global macro investing is a longer-term, more passive approach that involves building a diversified portfolio of assets with the goal of earning long-term returns.


How to Become a Global Macro Trader or Investor

To become a global macro investor, you will need to have a deep understanding of global economic trends, macroeconomic forces, and the ways in which these factors can impact financial markets.

This typically requires a strong background in economics, finance, or a related field, as well as strong analytical and problem-solving skills.

Here are some steps you can take to start your career as a global macro investor:

Obtain a bachelor’s degree in a relevant field

A bachelor’s degree in economics, finance, math/statistics, or a related field can provide a strong foundation for a career in global macro investing.

Many global macro investors have advanced degrees, such as a Master’s in Business Administration (MBA) or a PhD in Economics.

Gain relevant work experience

Many global macro investors have worked in finance or related fields before transitioning into global macro investing.

You can gain valuable experience by interning or working at a financial institution, investment bank, or hedge fund.

Develop your analytical skills

Global macro investing requires strong analytical skills to understand complex economic data and trends.

You can hone your analytical skills by taking courses in data analysis, economics, or finance, or by practicing your analysis through internships or work experience.

Build your knowledge of global economics

To become a successful global macro investor, you need to have a thorough understanding of global economic trends and the forces that shape them.

You can build your knowledge by reading relevant books and articles, taking courses in global economics, and following the news and analysis of financial experts.

Consider obtaining a professional certification

A professional certification, such as the Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA) or the Financial Risk Manager (FRM) can demonstrate your knowledge and skills to potential employers and help you stand out in the job market.

Network and seek mentorship

Building relationships with professionals in the field can help you gain insights and advice about breaking into the field of global macro investing.

You can attend industry events, join professional organizations, and seek out mentors who can provide guidance and support as you start your career.


Global Macro Hedge Funds

Global macro hedge funds are investment funds that use a global macro investment strategy, which involves taking positions in financial instruments based on an analysis of broad economic trends and macroeconomic events.

Some examples of global macro hedge funds include:

Paul Tudor Jones’ Tudor Investment Corporation

Paul Tudor Jones is a well-known global macro investor and the founder of Tudor Investment Corporation, a hedge fund that has employed a global macro strategy for many years.

Ray Dalio’s Bridgewater Associates

Bridgewater Associates is a prominent global macro hedge fund founded by Ray Dalio, who is known for his unconventional approach to investing and his focus on understanding the relationships between different economic and financial market trends.

George Soros’ Soros Fund Management

George Soros is another well-known global macro investor, and his firm, Soros Fund Management, has employed a global macro strategy for many years.

Soros’ shorting of the British pound in 1992 is perhaps the most famous trade in the history of global macro and one of the most well-known in all of financial history.

BlackRock Global Macro Opportunities Fund

BlackRock is a large investment management firm that offers a range of global macro hedge funds, including the BlackRock Global Macro Opportunities Fund.

Millennium Management

Millennium Management is a global hedge fund that employs a multi-strategy approach, including global macro strategies.

It’s important to note that hedge funds are typically only available to accredited investors, meaning they meet certain income or net worth requirements.

They may also involve higher fees and risks compared to other types of investments.


FAQs – Global Macro

What do macroeconomists do and how are their skills applied?

Macroeconomists analyze and interpret the performance of national economies and global markets, and their skills can be useful for making investment decisions in the global macro investing space. 

Global macro trading/investing involves taking positions in different asset classes such as stocks, bonds, commodities, and currencies, based on macroeconomic trends, geopolitical developments, and other global factors that can affect financial markets.

Below we list out some ways a macroeconomist can apply their skill set (often in conjunction with other experts) to global macro trading/investing:

  • Economic analysis: Macroeconomists analyze macroeconomic indicators such as GDP growth, inflation, interest rates, capital flows, and other data to identify trends and predict potential future market movements.
  • Geopolitical analysis: Global macro investing requires an understanding of political and geopolitical events that can impact markets. Macroeconomists can use their knowledge of political and social trends to analyze the potential impact on markets.
  • Risk management: Macroeconomists can use their knowledge of risk management to assess the risks associated with different investments and adjust their investment strategies accordingly.
  • Investment strategy: Based on their analysis of economic and geopolitical trends, macroeconomists can develop investment strategies that seek to profit from market movements. They typically use a top-down approach to allocate capital across different asset classes based on macro trends.
  • Data analysis: Macroeconomists are skilled in analyzing large datasets and using statistical tools to perform analysis. They can use data analysis to identify patterns and trends in financial markets that may not be apparent to other market participants.

Overall, the skills of a macroeconomist can be valuable for global macro investors in making good investment decisions based on a deep understanding of macroeconomic trends and other global factors impacting the markets they cover.

Global macro trends refer to broad, long-term economic, and financial market trends that can impact financial instruments and investment decisions.

Some examples of global macro trends include:

  • Changes in economic growth rates: Economic growth rates can impact the performance of financial markets and individual companies. For example, a country with a high growth rate may attract more investment, leading to an increase in demand for its currency and assets.
  • Inflation: Inflation, or the sustained increase in the general price level of goods and services in an economy, can impact the purchasing power of money and the value of financial assets. For example, high inflation may lead investors to seek out assets that are expected to hold their value, such as commodities or real estate.
  • Interest rate movements: Interest rates can impact the cost of borrowing, which can in turn affect the demand for credit and the performance of financial assets. For example, a rise in interest rates may lead to a decrease in demand for stocks and other risky assets, as investors seek out safer investments that offer higher returns.
  • Exchange rates: Exchange rates, or the price of one currency in terms of another, can impact the competitiveness of exports and imports, as well as the value of financial assets denominated in different currencies. For example, a country with a strong currency may see an outflow of capital as investors seek higher returns in other countries.
  • Political developments: Political developments, such as elections, wars, and policy changes, can impact economic conditions and financial markets. For example, a change in government leadership may lead to changes in economic policies that could impact the performance of financial assets.
  • Technological advancements: Technological advancements can impact the demand for certain goods and services, as well as the profitability of companies. For example, the adoption of new technologies may lead to increased productivity and efficiency, which could boost the performance of certain industries or sectors.

What are some examples of global macro trades?

Global macro trades are investment strategies that seek to profit from changes in global economic trends and events.

Here are five examples of global macro trades:

  1. Currency trades: This involves buying and selling different currencies in an effort to profit from changes in exchange rates. For example, an investor might buy the Japanese yen if they believe it will appreciate in value relative to the US dollar.
  2. Interest rate trades: This involves taking positions in financial instruments that are sensitive to changes in interest rates, such as bonds or currency futures, or interest rates themselves (e.g., eurodollars, fed funds futures). For example, an investor might buy US Treasury bonds if they believe interest rates will decline.
  3. Equity index trades: This involves taking positions in equity indexes, such as the S&P 500 or the NASDAQ, in an effort to profit from changes in the overall stock market.
  4. Commodity trades: This involves taking positions in commodities such as oil, gold, or agricultural products in an effort to profit from changes in their prices.
  5. Credit trades: This involves taking positions in instruments such as corporate bonds or credit default swaps in an effort to profit from changes in the creditworthiness of a particular issuer.

Who invests in global macro funds?

Investors in global macro funds can include hedge funds, pension funds, sovereign wealth funds, endowments, foundations, high-net-worth individuals, and other accredited investors.

These types of investors tend to have a higher risk tolerance and are looking for investment opportunities that have the potential for higher returns.

They may also be attracted to the diversification benefits that global macro strategies can provide, as they can potentially offer exposure to a wide range of asset classes and markets around the world.

It’s important to note that global macro investing can be complex, requires deep expertise, and may carry a high level of risk, so it may not be suitable for all investors.

It’s always important for investors to carefully consider their investment objectives and risk tolerance before making any investment decisions.


Conclusion – Global Macro

Global macro is a trading/investment strategy that involves taking positions in financial instruments based on an analysis of broad economic trends and macroeconomic events.

This approach seeks to profit from shifts in global economic conditions and can involve investing in a wide range of financial instruments, including currencies, bonds, equities, and commodities.

Global macro strategies can be employed through a variety of investment vehicles, such as hedge funds, mutual funds, and exchange-traded funds.

These strategies are often considered to be high-risk, as they rely on making accurate forecasts about the direction of global economic conditions, but they also have the potential for high returns.