Interest Rate Parity (IRP)

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Written By
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Written By
Dan Buckley
Dan Buckley is an US-based trader, consultant, and part-time writer with a background in macroeconomics and mathematical finance. He trades and writes about a variety of asset classes, including equities, fixed income, commodities, currencies, and interest rates. As a writer, his goal is to explain trading and finance concepts in levels of detail that could appeal to a range of audiences, from novice traders to those with more experienced backgrounds.

Interest rate parity (IRP) is a fundamental concept in international finance that describes the relationship between interest rates and foreign exchange rates.

At its core, IRP asserts that the difference in interest rates between two countries is equal to the expected change in their exchange rates.

We also give a mathematical example below.


Key Takeaways – Interest Rate Parity

  • Arbitrage Opportunities:
    • Interest Rate Parity highlights potential arbitrage opportunities.
    • If discrepancies arise between interest rate differentials and expected exchange rate changes, investors can exploit these for profit.
  • Forecasting Exchange Rates:
    • IRP aids in predicting future exchange rate movements.
    • Understanding the relationship between different countries’ interest rates and their currencies helps in making informed trading decisions in foreign bonds and currencies.
  • Trading and Investment Decision Guidance:
    • IRP guides traders in international investment.
    • It helps ensure that traders cannot earn arbitrage (risk-free) profits by simply moving funds between countries
    • This limits hot money flows and promotes more stable and reliable international financial markets.


The Underlying Principle

The principle behind IRP is based on the idea of arbitrage.

Arbitrage is the practice of taking advantage of price differences in different markets.

In the context of IRP, traders seek to exploit differences in interest rates between countries.

If there is a discrepancy between the interest rate differential and the expected change in exchange rates, arbitrage opportunities arise.


Covered and Uncovered Interest Rate Parity

There are two main forms of interest rate parity: covered and uncovered.

  • Covered interest rate parity (CIRP) deals with transactions that involve forward contracts.
  • Uncovered interest rate parity (UIRP) pertains to transactions without forward contracts.

CIRP asserts that there should be no arbitrage opportunities when forward contracts are used.

UIRP, on the other hand, is based on expectations and does not guarantee the absence of arbitrage.


IRP’s Implications for Traders

Interest rate parity has implications for international traders.

It helps in predicting future exchange rate movements.

Understanding IRP can guide trading decisions in foreign bonds and currencies.


Example of Interest Rate Parity

For instance, if the interest rate in Country A is higher than in Country B, but the expected depreciation of Country A’s currency offsets this difference, then the expected returns from investing in both countries would be the same.

This ensures that investors cannot earn arbitrage profits by simply moving funds between countries.

Let’s consider two countries: the United States (US) and the United Kingdom (UK).

Suppose the annual interest rate for a one-year deposit is 4% in the US and 6% in the UK.


  • You have $1,000,000.
  • The exchange rate is 1.2 GBP/USD.


Invest in the US:

  • Deposit your $1,000,000 in a US bank.
  • This means you will have $1,040,000 in one year.

Invest in the UK:

  • Convert your $1,000,000 to pounds.
  • $1,000,000 / 1.2 = £833,333
  • Deposit £833,333 in a UK bank.
  • After one year, you will have: £833,333 * 1.06 = £883,333

Interest Rate Parity (IRP) in Action:

For there to be interest rate parity, the amount you have after investing in the UK and converting the funds back to dollars should be equal to the amount you would have after investing in the US.

If the expected future exchange rate is notated as E[GBP/USD], then:


£883,333 * E[GBP/USD] = $1,040,000

E[GBP/USD] = $1,040,000 / £883,333

E[GBP/USD] = 1.177


So, based on this interest rate differential, the expected forward exchange rate is 1.177.

In other words, the GBP/USD is expected to depreciate by about 2% based on the existing rate differential. (It’s slightly off due to rounding errors in our calculations).


Factors Affecting Interest Rate Parity

Several factors can cause deviations from interest rate parity.

Market imperfections, such as transaction costs and taxes, can affect the relationship.

Differing expectations about future interest rates and exchange rates can also lead to deviations.

Additionally, political risks, economic policies, and varying levels of market liquidity can influence the IRP relationship.


Real-World Applications

In the real world, perfect interest rate parity seldom exists.

However, the concept serves as a useful benchmark for financial professionals.

Central banks and policymakers often monitor IRP deviations to gauge market expectations.

Such deviations can signal potential economic imbalances or shifts in investor sentiment.

Also, businesses involved in international trade and investment frequently use IRP to hedge against foreign exchange risk.


FAQs – Interest Rate Parity

What is Interest Rate Parity (IRP)?

Interest Rate Parity (IRP) is a fundamental concept in international finance that describes the relationship between interest rates and foreign exchange rates.

It asserts that the difference in interest rates between two countries is equal to the difference between the forward exchange rate and the spot exchange rate of their currencies.

This ensures that there is no arbitrage opportunity from borrowing in one currency, converting it to another currency, investing in the second currency, and then converting back at the forward rate for risk-free profits.

Why is IRP important?

IRP is important because it provides insights into the expected movements in foreign exchange rates based on interest rate differentials.

For investors and financial institutions, understanding IRP helps in making informed decisions related to international investments, hedging foreign exchange risk, and evaluating the attractiveness of different currencies for investment.

How is IRP used in forecasting exchange rates?

IRP can be used to forecast future exchange rates based on the current spot rate and the interest rate differential between two countries.

If one country’s interest rate is higher than another’s, its currency is expected to depreciate in the future, and vice versa.

This is because investors would move their money to the country with the higher interest rate to earn more, increasing the demand for that currency in the short term but expecting it to return to its original value in the long term.

What are the assumptions behind IRP?

The primary assumptions behind IRP include:

  • Capital mobility: Investors can freely move their capital between countries without restrictions.
  • Perfect substitutability: Financial instruments in different countries are perfect substitutes for each other, given their risk and maturity.
  • No arbitrage: There are no opportunities for risk-free profits from exploiting differences in interest rates and exchange rates.
  • Transaction costs are negligible: Costs associated with currency conversion and transferring funds are assumed to be zero or very low.

How does Covered Interest Rate Parity differ from Uncovered Interest Rate Parity?

Covered Interest Rate Parity (CIRP) refers to the condition where the relationship between interest rates and the forward exchange rate eliminates all arbitrage opportunities.

In CIRP, traders are assumed to hedge their foreign exchange risk using forward contracts.

On the other hand, Uncovered Interest Rate Parity (UIRP) does not involve hedging against foreign exchange risk.

It asserts that the expected future spot rate is equal to the forward rate implied by the interest rate differential.

UIRP is based on expectations, making it more speculative than CIRP.

Are there any criticisms or limitations of IRP?

Yes, there are several criticisms of IRP:

  • Real-world frictions: In reality, there are transaction costs, taxes, and other barriers that can prevent the full realization of IRP.
  • Differing financial instruments: The assumption that financial instruments are perfectly substitutable across countries might not hold true due to differences in risk, liquidity, and other factors.
  • Behavioral factors: Investors’ decisions might be influenced by factors other than interest rates, such as political stability, economic outlook, and market sentiments.

How does IRP relate to the concept of Purchasing Power Parity (PPP)?

Both IRP and Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) are fundamental concepts in international finance that describe equilibrium conditions.

While IRP focuses on the relationship between interest rates and exchange rates, PPP deals with the relationship between price levels in two countries and their exchange rate.

Both theories aim to explain and predict exchange rate movements, but they do so from different perspectives.

When combined, they provide a comprehensive view of the factors influencing exchange rates.

Can IRP be used for investment decisions?

Yes, IRP can be a valuable tool for investors.

By understanding the relationship between interest rates and expected exchange rate movements, investors can make informed decisions about where to allocate their funds, how to hedge their foreign exchange exposures, and which currencies might offer potential returns or risks.

However, it’s essential to consider other economic, political, and market factors alongside IRP when making investment decisions.

How often does the real-world financial market align with IRP?

While IRP provides a theoretical framework, real-world financial markets often deviate from this equilibrium due to various factors like transaction costs, capital controls, risk perceptions, and market inefficiencies.

However, significant and persistent deviations from IRP can present arbitrage opportunities, which, when exploited by investors, can push the market back toward equilibrium.

Is IRP based on nominal exchange rates (and nominal interest rates) or real exchange rates (real interest rates)?

IRP is based on nominal exchange rates and nominal interest rates.

It does not account for inflation and is concerned with the interest rates and exchange rates quoted in the market.

In the context of IRP:

  • The nominal interest rate in each country is used to calculate the return on investment in that country’s currency.
  • The nominal exchange rate is used to convert currencies for international investment.

However, in a broader economic context, real exchange rates and real interest rates (which are adjusted for inflation) are also important for understanding international finance and investment decisions.

Real rates and exchange rates provide a more accurate measure of the actual return on investment and the real value of money when considering international investments and financing.



Interest rate parity is a cornerstone of international finance theory.

While real-world deviations exist, the concept provides a link between interest rates and exchange rates.

By understanding IRP, investors, traders, businesses, and policymakers can make more informed decisions.