Pump And Dump

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Jemma Grist
Jemma is a writer, editor and fact-checker focused on retail trading and investing. Jemma brings a unique perspective to the forex, stock, and cryptocurrency markets and works across several investment websites as a researcher and broker analyst.
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Edited By
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James Barra
James is an investment writer with a background in financial services. He has worked as a management consultant, where he delivered large-scale operational transformational programmes at some of Europe's biggest banks. James authors, edits and fact-checks content for a series of investing websites.
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Fact Checked By
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Tobias Robinson
Tobias is a partner at DayTrading.com, director of a UK limited company and active trader. He has over 25 years of experience in the financial industry and contributed via CySec to the regulatory response to digital options and CFD trading in Europe. Toby’s expertise and dedication to financial education make him a trusted voice in the industry, including a BBC investigation into digital options.

Pump and dump refers to an illegal practice in trading that attempts to boost the price of stocks. The scheme works by providing exaggerated or misleading information to prospective buyers, in the hope of persuading a large number of people to purchase the stock. When a surge of people buy it, the price goes up, and the perpetrators of the scam then sell their own stock at highly inflated prices.

Who Drives Pump And Dump Schemes?

Pump and dump schemes can be carried out by anyone who has a personal interest in a stock price rising; usually, this would be a company shareholder, or the company itself.
A company would even sometimes pay a team of promoters to falsely hype up a stock. Once enough people have been convinced of the stock’s potential, and the stock price rises, the company or shareholder will sell shares at a huge profit.

This practice is punishable by law, and those engaging in it could be subject to heavy regulatory fines.


The most famous example of a pump and dump scam was in the film The Wolf of Wall Street.

This movie was based on a true story of how a man becomes rich by cold calling unsuspecting amateur buyers and grossly exaggerating the profitability of small-company stocks.

His enterprise grew into a large team of people that traded in penny stocks, which were part of small companies that were otherwise of little buying interest. He managed to sell millions of shares in tiny, non-descript companies, falsely inflating their value, and then selling his own shares before the stock reached a ceiling and crashed.

The Wolf of Wall Street – otherwise known as Jordan Belfort – grew from rags to riches in the 1980s using the pump and dump scam.

The practice rose in popularity following this. However, although it is illegal and much more broadly recognised, it still remains today as many people try to copy the questionable success achieved by Belfort.

Social Media

Pump and dump scams were typically carried out via cold calling, as they originated before the internet was widely used.

However, the internet has given pump and dump traders even more opportunity to reach buyers. Scammers regularly post ads and messages online in targeted places, claiming to have inside information about a company that will lead to an increase in its share price.

You can spot pump and dump adverts almost anywhere – including within your social media feeds, as pop-ups on sites you visit and even in your email inbox.

How To Recognise A Pump And Dump

When you’re starting out in the world of trading, it can be difficult to know when a stock is being pumped. Many people start out trading smaller “penny stocks” due to their accessibility, lower risk and growth potential.

However, these are the stocks that are most often targeted by pump and dump traders – and these unscrupulous individuals mainly rely on the inexperience of beginner traders to follow through on their schemes.

It is possible to trade pump and dump stocks. However, you must be able to recognise that the stock is being pumped before you can do so. This is so you can understand the pattern it is likely to take, and trade it before it crashes.

The number one sign of a pump and dump is the promise of huge profits.

If you are being sold a stock by a person or a piece of marketing material that is saying there are big winnings around the corner, this should set off alarm bells.

This is because it is hard to know when profits will set in; it is possible to predict them, but impossible to guarantee it. When we buy stock, we do so on the assessment that it will bring us profits; however, we can’t guarantee it. Someone who is guaranteeing profit is likely to be a pump and dumper.

Penny Stocks

Pump and dump stocks are always penny stocks. These are low value and often unknown companies, and are prone to all kinds of exaggerations and scams.

Of course, not all penny stocks are pump and dump stocks. However, if they’re being overpromised, there’s a good chance they are.

You can trade penny stocks without falling victim to pump and dump scams by doing your research. Don’t buy stocks on the spot; take a bit of time to find your own information before making a sensible decision.

Identify A Reverse Takeover

A reverse takeover is a merger and is used when private companies want to go public. In order to become a publicly trading company, you need to sell a qualifying number of shares. Once you’ve reached enough shareholders, your company becomes public.

You may be being promised profits from buying a stock, when the real intention is to take a not-so-profitable company public. Again, do your research and, if the company doesn’t look like a good buy in your eyes, don’t buy it.

Before you buy a penny stock, check out its graphing trends. If you can see by the graph that a stock’s performance has remained steady for a long period of time, yet is now experiencing a sudden spike, it’s likely to be a pump and dump.

This is particularly likely to be a pump and dump if there is no apparent reason for the spike, i.e. no happenings in the market that could have contributed to an organic rise in price.

Stock prices do not start going up for no reason – they will either react to market conditions or they will have been the target of a pump and dump scam.

Surge In Trading

You can also identify a pump and dump if you notice a sudden spike in the number of shares being purchased. If that number has been relatively low and is suddenly up in the millions, that’s extremely suspect, and you should avoid it like the plague.

Avoiding Trouble

It can be difficult to know when you’re being mis-sold information about a stock, and are therefore the target of a pump and dump scam. Many people, as a result, could miss out on genuine stock buying opportunities due to over-exerting caution in this field.

There are ways to avoid being a victim of pump and dumps. Sticking to your trusted sources is one of them. If you receive over-excited information via press releases, marketing material, or cold calls from unknown sellers, avoid relying on their information to make decisions.

Often, these types of written material are commissioned by paid promoters to entice unsuspecting people into buying stock, falsely giving the impression that the stock has massive growth potential.


In conclusion, pump and dump scams are well recognised now. However, many traders still fall victim to them and scammers continue to prey on both experienced and amateur traders alike.

In short, knowing what a pump and dump scam is, and knowing how to spot one, will help make sure you don’t become a victim. Pump and dump scams are still common, and you are likely to come across them when trading penny stock.